According to David Rapoport religious extremism is the fourth wave of terrorism that started in 1979, which is close to the Islamic revolution in Iran, the Soviet invasion in Afghanistan, and the storming and occupation of grand mosque in Mecca. Since then, there have been many religious groups
involved in terrorism, for example Islamic extremist groups in different countries including the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) as a global threat to humanity, Sikhs in Punjab from their holy temple in India, Jewish religious terrorists such those who murdered Yitzhak Rabin in Tel Aviv, Christian groups
such as anti-abortion militants and those responsible for the attack of the Tokyo subway. Looking into these examples, one can barely argue that religion has not been used as an active ...
Since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001, considerable international attention has been directed towards Afghanistan. Key instruments in support of the new government in Afghanistan and its people have been military operations through the United States of America (US), the International Security Assistance Forces (ISAF), The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and international development cooperation. The strategies and approaches of the international community have shifted over time, but international development has remained one of the foundations in promoting security, combating terrorism, reducing poverty, promoting democracy and state-building, and fostering gender equality. The war after 2001 in Afghanistan refers to the intervention of the North Atlantic Tr...
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